Verdrag van de Verenigde Naties inzake het recht van de zee, Montego-Bay, 10-12-1982
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Inhoudsopgave
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Article 1. Use of terms and scope
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA
+ SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA
+ SECTION 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE
+ SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE
Article 46. Use of terms
Article 47. Archipelagic baselines
Article 48. Measurement of the breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf
Article 49. Legal status of archipelagic waters, of the air space over archipelagic waters and of their bed and subsoil
Article 50. Delimitation of internal waters
Article 51. Existing agreements, traditional fishing rights and existing submarine cables
Article 52. Right of innocent passage
Article 53. Right of archipelagic sea lanes passage
Article 54. Duties of ships and aircraft during their passage, research and survey activities, duties of the archipelagic State and laws and regulations of the archipelagic State relating to archipelagic sea lanes passage
Article 55. Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
Article 56. Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the exclusive economic zone
Article 57. Breadth of the exclusive economic zone
Article 58. Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive economic zone
Article 59. Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone
Article 60. Artificial islands, installations and structures in the exclusive economic zone
Article 61. Conservation of the living resources
Article 62. Utilization of the living resources
Article 63. Stocks occurring within the exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States or both within the exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to it
Article 64. Highly migratory species
Article 65. Marine mammals
Article 66. Anadromous stocks
Article 67. Catadromous species
Article 68. Sedentary species
Article 69. Right of land-locked States
Article 70. Right of geographically disadvantaged States
Article 71. Non-applicability of articles 69 and 70
Article 72. Restrictions on transfer of rights
Article 73. Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State
Article 74. Delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite or adjacent coasts
Article 75. Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates
Article 76. Definition of the continental shelf
Article 77. Rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf
Article 78. Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space and the rights and freedoms of other States
Article 79. Submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf
Article 80. Artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf
Article 81. Drilling on the continental shelf
Article 82. Payments and contributions with respect to the exploitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles
Article 83. Delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts
Article 84. Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates
Article 85. Tunnelling
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES OF THE HIGH SEAS
Article 121. Regime of islands
Article 122. Definition
Article 123. Co-operation of States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas
Article 124. Use of terms
Article 125. Right of access to and from the sea and freedom of transit
Article 126. Exclusion of application of the most-favoured-nation clause
Article 127. Customs duties, taxes and other charges
Article 128. Free zones and other customs facilities
Article 129. Co-operation in the construction and improvement of means of transport
Article 130. Measures to avoid or eliminate delays or other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit
Article 131. Equal treatment in maritime ports
Article 132. Grant of greater transit facilities
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE AREA
+ SECTION 3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE AREA
+ SECTION 4. THE AUTHORITY
+ SECTION 5. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND ADVISORY OPINIONS
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL CO-OPERATION
+ SECTION 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
+ SECTION 4. MONITORING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
+ SECTION 5. INTERNATIONAL RULES AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION TO PREVENT, REDUCE AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
+ SECTION 6. ENFORCEMENT
+ SECTION 7. SAFEGUARDS
+ SECTION 8. ICE-COVERED AREAS
+ SECTION 9. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY
+ SECTION 10. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY
+ SECTION 11. OBLIGATIONS UNDER OTHER CONVENTIONS ON THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION
+ SECTION 3. CONDUCT AND PROMOTION OF MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
+ SECTION 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
+ SECTION 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY
+ SECTION 6. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND INTERIM MEASURES
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION
+ SECTION 3. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL MARINE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CENTRES
+ SECTION 4. CO-OPERATION AMONG INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
- SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
+ SECTION 2. COMPULSORY PROCEDURES ENTAILING BINDING DECISIONS
+ SECTION 3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2
Article 300. Good faith and abuse of rights
Article 301. Peaceful uses of the seas
Article 302. Disclosure of information
Article 303. Archaeological and historical objects found at sea
Article 304. Responsibility and liability for damage
Article 305. Signature
Article 306. Ratification and formal confirmation
Article 307. Accession
Article 308. Entry into force
Article 309. Reservations and exceptions
Article 310. Declarations and statements
Article 311. Relation to other conventions and international agreements
Article 312. Amendment
Article 313. Amendment by simplified procedure
Article 314. Amendments to the provisions of this Convention relating exclusively to activities in the Area
Article 315. Signature, ratification of, accession to and authentic texts of amendments
Article 316. Entry into force of amendments
Article 317. Denunciation
Article 318. Status of Annexes
Article 319. Depositary
Article 320. Authentic texts
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Artikel 101 Verdrag van de Verenigde Naties inzake het recht van de zee, Montego-Bay, 10-12-1982



The States Parties to this Convention,
Prompted by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and co-operation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,
Noting that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea,
Conscious that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole,
Recognizing the desirability of establishing through this Convention, with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,
Bearing in mind that the achievement of these goals will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order which takes into account the interests and needs of mankind as a whole and, in particular, the special interests and needs of developing countries, whether coastal or land-locked,
Desiring by this Convention to develop the principles embodied in resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1970 in which the General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly declared inter alia that the area of the sea-bed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, as well as its resources, are the common heritage of mankind, the exploration and exploitation of which shall be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States,
Believing that the codification and progressive development of the law of the sea achieved in this Convention will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, co-operation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equal rights and will promote the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter,
Affirming that matters not regulated by this Convention continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law,
Have agreed as follows:
Article 101. Definition of piracy
Piracy consists of any of the following acts:
(a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed:
(i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft;
(ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State;
(b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft;
(c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).